"Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement." (Hattie and Timperley 2007, Review of Educational Research March 2007, Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 81–112)
In Hattie’s research 1999 comparing 500 meta-analysis of over 180,000 studies involving 20-30 million pupils, the power of feedback to impact on learning outcomes was on average twice the size of other influences on achievement including direct instruction, reciprocal teaching, prior ability, reduced class size and other factors such as socioeconomic factors. However feedback has the power to impact both positively and negatively on pupil performance.
In order to be positively effective ”...feedback must answer three major questions asked by a teacher and/or by a pupil:
Where am I going? (What are the goals?), How am I going? (What progress is being made toward the goal?), and Where to next? (What activities need to be undertaken to make better progress?)” (ibid p.86)
Similarly, more recent research supports the fact that providing feedback is one of the most effective and cost-effective ways of improving pupils’ learning. The studies of feedback reviewed in the Teaching and Learning Toolkit – an evidence synthesis produced by the EEF, Sutton Trust and Durham University – found that on average the provision of high-quality feedback led to an improvement of eight additional months’ progress over the course of a year.
However, in 2016 the burden of marking on teachers was noted in a "Report of the Independent Teacher Workload Review Group, Eliminating unnecessary workload around marking". This suggested that providing written feedback on pupils’ work had become disproportionately valued by schools, and the quantity of feedback has too often become confused with the quality. The group noted that and there is no "one size fits all" way to mark, instead recommending an approach based on professional judgement.
While it is important to note that written marking is only one form of feedback marking offers an opportunity to provide pupils with the clear and specific information that the wider evidence base on feedback suggests is most likely to lead to pupil progress (EEF. Review of Written Marking p.6 April 2016).
The aim of this policy is to ensure clear understanding of the purposes, procedures and processes of effective marking and feedback to pupils regarding their work in order to maximise progress and support pupils in becoming affective learners. Effective marking and feedback is integral to good teaching and learning processes. By empowering pupils to be actively involved in understanding how they are making progress, it helps to embed learning swiftly and enables accelerated learning. Effective marking and feedback aims to:
- Inform the pupil what they have done well and what they need to do to improve.
- Support pupil confidence and self-esteem in learning, and contributes to accelerated learning.
- Support teachers’ assessment knowledge of each pupil as part of thorough assessment for learning procedures, in order to plan and refine next steps in learning.
- Develop consistent processes across the school to teach pupils to respond to feedback, self-assess and evaluate their own learning.
At Croxteth Primary marking has two purposes;
- Pupils act on feedback and make progress over time.
- It informs future planning and teaching.
Both verbal and written feedback is used to provide a dialogue between teacher and pupil. Our recent Inset training (January 2017) allowed all staff to review our marking and feedback practise and policy. All staff considered the effectiveness of specific verbal feedback during a lesson. We also considered the importance of clear success criteria and how our marking policy should remain manageable whilst continuing to have maximum impact. Into our practise there are opportunities for peer marking, challenge and self-assessment.
At the start of the lesson:
Reflection of learning so far (usually from previous day) = ‘Green Pen Time’ 5-10 minutes at the beginning of a session to;-
- • Correct or read teacher’s comments in books
- • Complete a challenge
- • Respond to marking from the previous session
During the session:
Verbal feedback can be given to the whole class, groups or 1:1 during the course of a lesson. If VF is written on a piece of work this means that Verbal Feedback has been given during the lesson.
At the end of a session –
The children provide their own evaluation and complete a Learning Grid. They colour a circle with a colour to show how they feel about their success in meeting the learning challenge during that session;-
Red = I am not confident with this and need help.
Amber = I understood some of the learning but require further help
Green = I achieved the learning challenge I am confident with this aspect of learning
If the activity has been supported by the Teacher then the stamp will have T, Teaching Assistant supported will be marked TA.
When necessary the teacher will provide developmental feedback which is written using green pen in clear handwriting and will be underneath the stamp. This will begin;-
- • dialogue between the teacher and child.
- • Offer advice or a question requiring a response from the child
- • Provide a written challenge to support or extend learning. This will be individual to that child.
- • Daily Planning will indicate which children were R and A these children may need extra / repeat input the next day.
- • If there were common misconceptions or a common piece of feedback or challenge then the teacher may choose to provide a group feedback for R/A/G. This will be on the Smartboard at the beginning of the next lesson. It will be addressed during ‘Green Pen’ time.
Using Green pen: tick if correct and green dot if incorrect
Children could be asked to check and complete incorrect answers again, ‘Have another go....’
Further examples can be provided after R/A/G stamp to check understanding or thinking, ‘Can you think of any more numbers that can be....’
Number reversal will be dealt with after the R/A/G stamp ‘Remember 7 not ....’
Key Stage 1 (same Key Stage 2 except greater emphasis on 1:1 Feedback and verbal feedback as a focus group)
Key Stage 1 - At the start of the session
- • Reflection of learning so far.
- • ‘Green pen time’ to be done if not taken place during previous focus session.
Key Stage 1 - During the session
- • Verbal feedback can be given to the whole group or 1:1. VF will be written in the book if this has taken place.
- • Corrections and challenges will be completed as necessary with the children during the ‘focus’ teaching time.
In addition a ‘mark code’ will be used to highlight areas which are to be improved but do not relate to the immediate Learning Challenge. Teachers may use the English mark code below to improve the presentation and GPS of writing over time. (see below)
|Sp.||Try this spelling again|
|P||Punctuation missing here. ! ? " " ,|
|New line for new speaker|
|//||New paragraph needed|
|?||Does this writing/sentence make sense?|
|g||Check your grammar here|
Paddling, Snorkelling, Diving – Reference to this analogy is always used in ‘Going for Gold’ writing as a summative assessment. It is also used at the end of a taught unit of work in a ‘hot’ piece of writing or maths problem/investigation.
Each classroom has a display
Paddling - Working at a basic level of understanding in this milestone.
Snorkelling - Working at an emerging level of understanding in this milestone.
Diving - Work showing a deep level of understanding in this milestone.
All pupils will have their work marked in accordance with this policy.
SEN & Inclusion
Effective feedback and marking must be accessible to all pupils and will reflect their individual needs and abilities. This may mean support for pupils to read comments or recording verbal feedback and response. Such requirements should be identified in a pupil's Individual Education Plan as required.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring of the policy will be done through work scrutiny led by the Headteacher and SLT leads as appropriate. It will be monitored for whole school consistency and evaluated for impact on pupils’ outcomes. The Headteacher and SLT member (responsible for Phase Teaching and Learning) will also monitor the impact of developmental marking through work scrutiny in both Maths and English and as part of lesson observations to monitor quality of teaching and learning in the school. In Foundation Stage this will also include scrutiny of observational assessment and content of Learning Journeys. This will be supported by pupil interviews to ascertain how developmental marking supports them in understanding what they need to do to improve their learning and make progress.
Work Scrutiny will be used to monitor consistency across the school and the impact of the policy on pupil outcomes.
This procedure has been agreed by the staff and Governors in the Spring Term 2017 and will be reviewed in line with the school’s cycle of policy reviews, by and in the first instance no longer than Autumn 2018.